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She is a small landlocked country regarded as Land of a Thousand Hills and it’s found in the Great Lakes region of east-central Africa. Rwanda is bordered by Burundi, Uganda, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. She has both fertile and hilly terrain land and her population is approximately 9 million people. Because of the 1994 genocide that led to the deaths of over 1 million people, Rwanda is well known to the outside world. Besides the genocides, Rwanda has a tragic history of conflict, violence and serial genocide. On July 1, 1962, she got her independence and was created as a republic governed by the majority Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement (PARMEHUTU), has made it gain full control of national politics by this time.
After the 1994 genocide, a single-party "coalition-based" was created by the RPF and Paul Kagame became Vice-President of the Country. In the year 2000 Paul Kagame was elected the president of Rwanda by the parliament. In 2003 the new constitution written by the president was adopted by referendum in that in August and September 2003 presidential and legislative elections were held hence making Paul Kagame the president. The Senate has at least 26 members, each with an 7 year term. At least 1/3 of positions must be held by women. 8 posts are appointed by the president. 12 are elected representatives of the 11 provinces and the city of Kigali. Four members are designated by the Forum of Political Organizations, one member is a university lecturer or researcher elected by the public universities; one member is a university lecturer or researcher elected by the private universities. Any past President has permanent membership in the Senate. Under this scheme, up to 12 appointees to the Senate are appointed by the President and his party. The elected members must be approved by the Supreme Court.
She is divided into five provinces and also subdivided into thirty districts. The provinces include these include: the East Province, West Province, Kigali Province, North Province and South Province.
Rwanda is situated near the center of Africa and is a few degrees south of the Equator. Her capital city is Kigali that is situated in the centre of the country. She is divided by Lake Kivu and the Ruzizi River valley to the west from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in the north its bordered by Uganda, Tanzania in the east, and in the south by Burundi. The countryside is designed with the grasslands and small farms extending over rolling hills and the rugged mountains areas extending southeast from a chain of volcanoes in the northwest. The division between the Congo and Nile drainage systems extend from north to south through western Rwanda at an average elevation of about 2,740 m. On the western slopes of this ridgeline, the land slopes abruptly toward Lake Kivu and the Ruzizi River valley, and constitutes part of the Great Rift Valley. The eastern slopes are more moderate, with rolling hills extending across central uplands at gradually reducing altitudes, to the plains, swamps, and lakes of the eastern border region. In 2006, a British-led exploration announced that they had located the longest headstream of the River Nile in Nyungwe Forest.